Ridiculous literati style?Liang Shuming openly contradicted Chairman MAO, but in his later years, why did he regret it?

2022-08-08 0 By

Liang Shuming, the last great scholar in China, was also a deplorable man of letters.On September 8, 1953, premier Zhou delivered a report entitled “General Line for the Transitional Period” at the expanded meeting of the 49th Standing Committee of the CPPCC National Committee.When the new China, will soon celebrate the third anniversary of the founding, more than two years before this, China has realized the important mission to establish a new system, completed the historical mission of land reform, to win the war to resist U.S. aggression and aid Korea miracle, historical task for the complete success of the new-democratic revolution period, start construction laid a solid foundation for the primary stage of socialism society.Therefore, Premier Zhou’s report is a significant planning of the future historical development of new China at the juncture of old and new history.Therefore, it is particularly important to pool ideas and listen to the voices of people from all walks of life.However, unexpectedly, on this meeting, there was a huge storm like a storm.On the afternoon of September 11, Liang Shuming, a member of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), whom Chairman MAO and Premier Zhou had entrusted to make a long speech, suddenly uttered something surprising during his speech.According to liang Shuming’s Q&a record, Liang Shuming pointed out that in the past nearly 30 years of revolution, the CPC relied on peasants to take rural areas as its base, but after entering big cities, the focus of its work shifted to urban areas, resulting in the gradual emptiness of rural areas.The situation has been particularly serious in recent years, as workers’ lives have improved rapidly while rural farmers are still suffering, but the cities have refused to allow them to enter the cities.Some people say that nowadays workers live in the nine heaven and the peasants live in the nine earth. There is a difference between “nine heaven and nine earth”.This immediately caused a great uproar at the meeting, especially the “nine heaven and nine earth” remark, which made Chairman MAO very unhappy.Then, in an impromptu speech on September 12, Chairman MAO criticized without naming names, saying, “Some people oppose our general line and complain about the farmers, probably the disciples of Confucius and Mencius.However, it should be noted that there is a big benevolent government and a small benevolent government. It is a small benevolent government to take care of the farmers, develop heavy industry, and attack the American empire.A little benevolence rather than a big one is doing The American people a favor.Someone unexpectedly teach fish to swim, it seems that our Communist party has been engaged in peasant movement for decades, or do not understand farmers, joke!The fundamental interests of the workers and peasants are the same, and this foundation cannot be divided or destroyed.”MAO’s criticism upset Liang Shuming, who felt deeply misunderstood, and wrote to MAO to explain that they had a 20-minute meeting on the evening of The 13th, but the misunderstanding was not cleared up and the meeting ended in acrimoniously.Criticism of Liang Shuming began to increase from The 14th. Liang Shuming took the stage on the 16th to repeatedly emphasize that he did not oppose the general line and criticized Chairman MAO for misunderstanding his meaning, but such a statement undoubtedly played a backfire.On The 17th, the criticism of Liang Shuming became more and more intense. Some representatives even criticized him as a hypocrite who kills people with pen.On The 18th, Liang Shuming asked to make a speech at the meeting. Despite full preparations and a lot of speeches, he failed to resolve the misunderstanding.Chairman MAO pointed out that Liang Shuming pretended to be the representative of peasants and said that he was against the general line of construction.Seeing that the smell of gunpowder was getting thicker and thicker, Liang Shu-ming was stubborn and said to Chairman MAO: “You said that you opposed the general line and destroyed the alliance of workers and peasants, I did not mean this, you said wrong, please take this back, I want to see if you have this magnanimity?Chairman MAO nodded and said, ‘Ok, you didn’t mean any harm, you misunderstood.’ This is the magnanimity I asked chairman MAO for.”MAO Replied, “I probably won’t have the magnanimity you want.”Liang Shu-ming said, “If you are magnanimous, I respect you more. If you are not magnanimous, you will lose my respect for you.”MAO Zedong replied, “You have some magnanimity, that is, you can still serve as a CPPCC member.”Liang Shuming: “This point is not important.”MAO Zedong angrily replied: “Irrelevant?If you think it is not important, that is another matter. If it is important, I will nominate you as a member of the Second CPPCC. As for your views and ideas, they must be misplaced.”The war of words between the two men shocked the audience. Many delegates could not bear it any longer and urged Liang Shuming to stop his nonsense and immediately “get off the stage!”But Liang Shuming insisted on finishing the story.Chairman MAO’s tone gradually calmed down and said calmly, “Mr. Liang, don’t talk too long today. Let me give you ten minutes to explain the main points, ok?”Liang Shuming replied: “I have a lot of facts to tell. How can ten minutes be enough?I hope the chairman gives me a fair deal.Chairman MAO allowed Liang Shuming to “speak for another ten minutes” for several times, but each time Liang Shuming said that there was not enough time. At last, Chairman MAO proposed a show of hands vote to decide whether to allow Liang Shuming to continue speaking.Although Chairman MAO raised his hand to agree, most of the delegates at the meeting strongly opposed it. In the end, Liang Shuming was dismissed from his speech stage amid a chorus of denunciation and never went out of the room again.Although chairman MAO said in later liang shu-ming problem belongs to the ideas rather than political issues, is the contradictions among the people, not them, and finally gave the “, “” reactionary”, but not a counter-revolutionary, can be critical, but will give ‘way out “of the evaluation, to liang shu-ming treatment continues, but liang shu-ming is completely out of the political stage.Liang Shuming’s reflection in his later years also wrote the best notes for the debate.In 1983, at the age of 90, Liang Shuming visited chairman MAO’s former residence in Shaoshan, Hunan Province and felt extremely ashamed of his “ignorant and fearless” behavior.Speaking of emotional, sobbing Liang Shuming said: “Because of my arrogance and arrogance, I completely disregarding Chairman MAO as a leader of the face, and publicly contradicted him, which prompted him to say a number of words in anger.If this had happened to Chiang Kai-shek, his secret agents would have asked Liang Shuming to take the head.”According to Mr. Zhang liang shu-ming’s before and behind the described in the book, in 1987, the 94 – year – old liang shu-ming to MAO zedong in reminiscing about “magnanimity” and the seeds of “katyn logjam fold” argument again reflection: “it was my bad attitude, speech all occasions, made him very embarrassed, I should not hurt his feelings, this is my wrong.Some inconsistencies in his statements, just as some inconsistencies in my statements, are inevitable and understandable.He’s been dead for ten years, and I feel deeply lonely.”A stubborn old man can do such reflection, will not be easy, this is Mr Liang shu-ming’s beauty, but said matter-of-factly, “adamant of the so-called” character, liang shu-ming’s eyes and thought was blocked out, until he died, also failed to thoroughly field to chairman MAO’s wisdom, more appreciate chairman MAO’s a painstaking.As the saying goes “character is destiny”, Liang Shuming’s “stubborn” is closely related to his “promising youth”.Although Liang Shuming was weak and his ability to take care of himself was much later than his peers, it was predicted that he would not live to grow up.In 1913, Liang Shuming published the Essence of Socialism, and in 1916, he published The Study of Yuan And The Determination of Doubt.Due to his fame, the junior high school graduate was hired by Peking University president CAI Yuanpei, and “Introduction to Indian Philosophy” became a popular course at Peking University.During the period of teaching in Peking University, Liang Shuming and Yang Changji, who taught in Peking University with him, became friends with youth, and chairman MAO at that time, as Yang Changji’s student in Hunan Normal University, was temporarily living in Yang’s house at this time to do part-time work and study, because he often opened the door to Liang Shuming, the two people had a side of the relationship.Since 1918, liang shu-ming’s father Liang Ji suicide, liang shu-ming dismally, even thought about suicide and becoming a monk, although not to the end, but also let liang shuming “big end”, from then on, liang shu-ming is no longer a single research culture, history, or philosophy of Buddhism, but combine learning with the fate of country and society, has transformed itself from a “wto accession” to the “official” metamorphosis.In the old China where the illiteracy rate was as high as 90%, liang Shuming was well educated. However, as a scholar with profound knowledge, liang Shuming also felt the importance of the unity of knowledge and action.Therefore, in 1924, Liang Shuming resigned from Peking University and began to carry out social research in the south and north of The Yangtze River, first in Guangdong, and then in Henan, but in the turbulent situation, Liang Shuming village governance experiment repeatedly aborted.In the end, Liang Shuming was displaced from place to place and settled down in Shandong province. With the support of The chairman of Shandong Province, Han Fuju, Liang Shuming carried out the “village governance experiment” in Zouping, Shandong province, established the famous “Shandong Rural Construction Research Institute”, and gradually formed the famous “rural construction school”.After the fall of Shandong province in 1937, Liang shuming’s social practice was forced to stop. After the publication of The Theory of Rural Construction, Liang Later served as a senator for national Defense.In 1938, the War of Resistance against Japanese aggression entered a critical moment, Liang Shuming went to Yan ‘an to meet chairman MAO twice, and had a detailed exchange of the outcome of the War of Resistance against Japanese aggression and the future fate of China.As supported Kang Liang reform of rural governance practices, to follow the sun and man, liang shu-ming on the fate of the nation tend to social improvement, this is at odds with claims of our party, but MAO still patience to listen, the mind world vision and mind, to liang shu-ming left a deep impression, also planted liang shu-ming against Chiang kai-shek, uphold the important foundation of our party.After the victory of the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression in 1945, Liang Shuming, as a representative of the Democratic League, actively fought with the KUOMINTANG and the Communist Party, showing his enthusiasm for making unremitting efforts to establish a new China.In 1946, Liang Shuming visited Yan ‘an again and had in-depth discussions with Chairman MAO and other leaders on the fate of China.Although differences remained wide, MAO listened, and there was no quarrel.However, Liang Shuming still lacked political sensitivity.During the war of liberation, liang Shuming was fearless in the face of Chiang Kai-shek’s dirty tricks, especially the evil acts of assassinating a third party, but he could not save the country and the people.The founding of New China in 1949 made Liang Shuming see the hope of national rejuvenation. However, the “road dispute”, which originated from the debate of the first cave meeting, was still in Liang Shuming’s heart and eventually led to a head-on confrontation.Because of what he learned and felt in the first half of his life, especially the gains and losses of the six-year village governance experiment in Shandong province, Liang Shuming strengthened the idea that China hopes in the countryside and revitalize the countryside in education.To be fair, there is nothing wrong with such remarks. After all, until today, the issues concerning agriculture, rural areas and farmers are still the top priority concerning the national economy and people’s livelihood.But the question is, can education really help revitalize villages?The historical development has proved that this is a real wishful thinking, and Liang Shuming promoted the rural moral level through education, then promoted the development of the whole countryside with morality, and promoted the industrialization of the countryside and even the country on this basis, it is a far-off fantasy.Many people highly affirmed liang Shuming’s spirit of going deep into the grassroots and pleading for the people’s orders, and praised liang Shuming’s concern for the country and the people.After all, it takes great courage to give up a good life and go deep into the bottom of the countryside. It is also courageous to give up class identity and shout for the bottom of the farmers.But the problem is that misguided efforts, like pouring water on a tree, lead to disaster.In addition to the improper way of rejuvenating the country, another defect of Liang Shuming lies in that as a teacher, Liang Shuming was also unqualified.Liang Shuming’s thought of village governance, with the slogan of “creating new culture and saving old countryside”, tried to promote “social schoolization and school socialization” with the thought of “combining politics and religion”, and built the village into a school with good moral order.But the problem is that education without economic foundation is rootless water, and Liang shuming’s enthusiasm is bound to be exhausted as time goes by.Even more embarrassing is the internal inconsistency.Liang Shuming had nothing to do with the chaos of external warlords. After all, “when a scholar meets a soldier, it is hard to explain why”, liang Shuming could not expect those soldiers to be completely influenced by his Confucian benevolent policy.Therefore, without the “old for new” of social class, Liang Shuming’s cultural and educational movement had little effect, and his active figure also encountered more and more criticism and criticism.From the perspective of the history of quiet night, liang Shuming’s greatest defect is not the Confucian idealism of benevolent governance to rejuvenate the country, but the fact that although his body keeps moving forward over time, his soul always falters.So his understanding, especially the understanding of the countryside, there is a huge deviation, the so-called idealism, is naive in nature.In the excellent film and TV drama “Bright Sword”, Tian Moxuan, Li Yunlong’s father-in-law, is a very “maverick” character. As a well-educated man of letters, he and Li Yunlong have many fierce conflicts, especially about the party.Tian Moxuan believes that all parties in a country can sit down and discuss state affairs, there is no need to “fight with each other”.As a result of the preference of film and TV play processing technique, li Yunlong of real reason appears rude and insolent instead, virtually added more sympathy to Tian Moxuan.As an intellectual in the Period of the Republic of China, Tian Moxuan was no different from Liang Shuming.The biggest defect in their cognition is that they cannot see the existence of classes and do not recognize the fierce struggle of class contradictions, which was vividly demonstrated in the discussion between Liang Shuming and Chairman MAO in 1938.This leads to a very central question: if class and class struggle do not exist, then what is a country and a nation?As early as before the October Revolution, Lenin pointed out that the people of the world are divided horizontally into classes and vertically into nations, which means that class and nation complement each other and are essentially two perspectives of the same thing.If classes do not exist, then how can a nation exist?And if nations do not exist, what is the nature of a nation composed of nations?Frankly speaking, what kind of country did Liang Shuming worry about?Therefore, Liang Shu-ming did not recognize the essence of the new Democratic revolution and did not have a clear understanding of the evil of the opposition.Moreover, Liang Shuming could not see the international situation of the turmoil, the necessary steps of industrialization accumulation of short-sighted, difficult to accept the existence of industrial and agricultural scissors difference, lack of trust in the alliance of workers and peasants.So the Confucian, who thought he knew the country well, had an irreconcilable argument with Chairman MAO.Liang Shuming should be well aware that chairman MAO wrote his classic work “Report on the Peasant Movement in Hunan” as early as 1927 after long-term field research.As liang Shuming’s contemporary, Chairman MAO had a more comprehensive and profound understanding of the nature of the countryside and finally found the right way to save China.Therefore, Liang Shu-ming’s reflection in his later years was not thorough, and the so-called “his words are not quite consistent with the facts” was also full of pride and defiance.However, no amount of persistence and unwillingness could stop liang Shuming’s final curtain.On June 23, 1988, Mr. Liang Shuming passed away in Beijing at the age of 95.The prophecy that “if I die, heaven and earth will change their color and history will change their ways” was also completely wiped out in the face.There are many omissions, please correct them.I am silent Night history, looking forward to your attention.