Archaeologist Baiyun Xiang: why should put forward handicraft archaeology?Study what?How?
Researcher Baiyun Xiang took a photo after his interview at the Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.Researcher Baiyun Xiang took a photo after an interview in the office of the Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.China News Agency reporter Sun Zifa Beijing, March 13 (reporter Sun Zifa) why to put forward a “handicraft archaeology” branch in the field of archaeology?What does handicraft archaeology research content have?How can relevant research be promoted?What is unique about urban handicraft archaeology?What role can handicraft archaeology play in building archaeology with Chinese characteristics, Chinese style and Chinese style?Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, former deputy director of the institute of archaeology, shandong university professor professors Bai Yunxiang archaeology in China was the first to put forward handicraft archaeological concepts, and in ten years ago the archaeological theory to handicraft industry professional papers published, established archaeological handicraft industry is one of the basic content of archaeological research, and soon caused positive reaction in archaeology.He recently accepted an exclusive interview with China News Service reporters in Beijing, explaining in detail the “past life” and future development of handicraft archaeology.Why put forward handicraft archaeology?Baiyun Xiang said that, as the general term of various traditional industries such as processing manufacturing and mining before the modern industrial revolution, ancient handicraft industry is also “pre-industrial period of industry”, it and agriculture together constitute the birth of the entire ancient society after the two major social production fields.The research object of archaeology usually includes relics and relics, and the vast majority of relics are handicraft products or articles directly related to handicraft activities. Meanwhile, archaeology starts from the search and research of antiquities (actually ancient handicraft products).Therefore, since its birth, modern archaeology has been closely related to the study of ancient handicraft industry, especially handicraft products.Baiyun Xiang pointed out that in modern archaeology, the research related to ancient handicraft industry is the subject of archaeology, but “handicraft archaeology” is a brand new proposition.”Such a proposition and making it gradually become a branch of archaeology should be necessary for the continuous improvement of archaeology, the gradual realization of the ultimate goal of archaeology, and even for the development of cultural heritage.”He believes that the proposal of “handicraft archaeology” has a profound theoretical background and historical background.So far, archaeological research and its achievements are more or less, directly or indirectly, consciously or unconsciously related to ancient handicraft industry.The reason why we put forward the topic of “handicraft archaeology” and discuss its related theories and methods is that we hope to establish the system of handicraft archaeology and promote the systematic archaeological research of ancient handicraft industry, so as to further improve the discipline system, academic system and discourse system of archaeology and promote the prosperity and development of archaeology.What are the main categories of handicraft archaeology?Baiyun Xiang said that handicraft archaeology is the archaeological study of various categories of ancient handicraft industry, and ancient handicraft industry is an industrial system with many categories.According to the archaeological findings and literature, to the Ming and qing dynasties in prehistoric China handicraft content according to the production and product use, can be roughly divided into stone, iron industry, wood, bone Angle clams, treasure, leather, clothing, fuel and other processing, ceramics fire industry, the bronze metallurgy industry, COINS casting industry and lacquer ware, glass, gunpowder, stationery, transport and other manufacturing industries,And textile industry, salt industry, brewing industry, sugar industry, tea industry, paper industry, printing industry, weaving industry, mining industry, a total of 25 major categories, some categories can be divided into a number of small categories, can also be divided into different categories according to the needs of research.Among them, stone industry is the most important category of handicraft industry in prehistoric times, and the stone handicraft industry such as jade processing, stone tool making and stone carving in historical times also belongs to this major category.The pottery and porcelain industry includes the pottery and porcelain of the prehistoric times, the original porcelain of the Shang and Zhou dynasties, and the pottery and porcelain of the past dynasties after the Han Dynasty.Including daily ceramic firing, also including brick and other building ceramic materials firing.It is an enduring handicraft industry in ancient China, especially brick and tile firing industry after the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, porcelain firing industry after the Wei and Jin Dynasties, is a huge industry.Baiyun Xiang pointed out that the classification of handicraft production is not absolute, and there is a close relationship between each category, such as bronze smelting industry, iron industry and mining industry has a direct relationship, textile industry and clothing processing industry directly related.There are also close links between various handicraft industries and other industries, such as brewing industry, sugar industry, tea industry and weaving industry, which are directly related to agricultural production. Vehicle and boat manufacturing is closely related to transportation, and coin foundry industry is closely related to commerce.At the same time, there were many other processing and manufacturing activities in ancient times, such as grain processing, food processing, tofu processing, printing and dyeing, etc., but they either existed as part of other industries or daily life, or did not form an independent handicraft industry, so they were not listed separately as a category of handicraft industry.In addition, the classification of handicraft industry is often different due to different research perspectives, such as the classification of “weapon manufacturing industry”, “agricultural tool manufacturing industry” and “non-staple food processing industry” according to the different uses of products.What is the content of handicraft archaeology research?Baiyun xiang said that ancient handicraft industry is a complex industrial system, and handicraft archaeology is also a complex research system.Handicraft archaeology starts from the study of various categories of ancient handicraft industry, and there are many categories of ancient handicraft industry, and there are many differences among them from raw materials, production technology to production mode, products and their circulation and application.Overall, archaeological handicraft industry mainly include raw materials, production tools and production facilities, technology and production process research, product research, product distribution and application research, producers, the production mode of operation, the industrial layout and industrial structure research, social economy, social culture and so on ten aspects.Baiyun Xiang stressed that in terms of the research practice of handicraft archaeology, handicraft archaeology can be a handicraft category, a certain era or a certain area, or a certain aspect of handicraft industry, or even a case study of a workshop, a certain craft and a certain product.As far as the whole handicraft archaeology is concerned, it should be a systematic study of all aspects of handicraft industry, even if it is a very micro case study, it should have the systematic thinking and macroscopic vision of handicraft archaeology.How to carry out handicraft archaeology research?Baiyun Xiang pointed out that there are many categories of ancient handicraft and the content of handicraft archaeology is complex. Therefore, the most basic method of handicraft archaeology is undoubtedly the method of modern archaeology, but at the same time, it must be organically combined with other disciplines, especially multi-disciplinary cooperation, and also need a variety of perspectives.He concrete analysis, according to the basic research as archaeology in the handicraft industry archaeological, on the one hand is obtained through the field archaeology monuments and relics and other information about the handicraft industry, on the other hand is to use archaeology stratigraphy and typology, the basic methods, such as cultural factors analysis of all kinds of data analysis, judgment and interpretation.In the field of handicraft archaeology, besides obtaining a large number of handicraft products from various cultural remains such as settlements, city sites, cellars and tombs, the most important thing is the investigation and excavation of various handicraft workshop sites (or workshop sites), including the relevant handicraft relics in city sites and settlement sites.Bai Yunxiang, handicraft industry has its unique archaeological discipline advantage, but because of the ancient crafts category is numerous, handicraft research content is widespread, not only involves the raw materials, process technology and related areas of natural science and technology, and involves the production and exchange of goods, such as social and economic fields, also involves the social organization structure, People’s Daily life and spiritual life, and other fields,This requires that handicraft archaeology should not only be based on archaeological excavation and research, but also organically combine with related disciplines, including document history, modern science and technology, science and technology history, anthropology, simulation experiment and so on.In addition, the handicraft industry archaeological research involves many areas, and these areas and interconnected, this request in the research of practice on the basis of the archaeological research and strengthen a multidisciplinary cooperation at the same time, also should have the ecological environment, science and technology, social production, social economy, social civilization and cultural exchanges between the broad research field of vision.He emphasized that handicraft archaeology should not be limited to handicraft production itself, but should be studied as a “social existence”, an “industrial system” and a “cultural factor”.And thus more widely and more deeply discusses handicraft industry and the people, and natural environment, handicraft industry and handicraft industry science and technology, handicraft industry and the social production and social economy, the handicraft industry and the evolution of social form, handicraft industry and the relationship between the ancient civilization, and further explore handicraft industry in the process of human society development history status and role and its laws.Why single out urban handicraft archaeology?On the basis of putting forward and establishing handicraft archaeology as a branch of archaeology, Baiyun Xiang recently put forward the proposition of “urban handicraft archaeology” separately based on the contemporary background and the development trend of Chinese archaeology. Why?He said that no city could live without economic life, and the economic life of ancient cities was mainly handicraft production and commercial activities, especially under the historical background of “emphasizing agriculture and suppressing commerce” in ancient China, handicraft was the main component of urban economic life.There is no doubt that handicraft archaeology is the proper meaning of urban archaeology, and has its unique position and function.Baiyun Xiang pointed out that urban handicraft archaeology refers to the archaeological excavation and research of handicraft relics inside and outside the scope of ancient city sites (including the city site itself and its suburbs). From the practice of urban archaeology in various places, ancient city sites have been found in the archaeology of handicraft relics.Handicraft industry is an organic part of social production and life in ancient cities. Handicraft remains are important material and cultural remains of ancient city sites. Archaeological excavation and research of handicraft remains is one of the basic tasks of urban archaeology.In terms of the industrial layout or spatial distribution of handicraft industry in ancient China, although the distribution characteristics are different in different times and industries, and the workshop sites of the same handicraft industry are often found everywhere, two types of concentrated distribution areas are common, namely “industrial agglomeration places” :One is the concentrated distribution area centered on the origin of raw materials, that is, the industrial agglomeration place formed by the origin of raw materials;The other is the concentrated distribution place with the city as the center, that is, the industrial agglomeration place with the city as the carrier.Obviously, the city was an important industrial gathering place of ancient handicraft industry.More importantly, the handicraft industry in ancient cities was not only diverse, but also the concentration of high-tech industries and the production of high-end goods.For example, from the Spring and Autumn period to the Qin and Han Dynasties, iron industry was a high-tech industry and a pillar industry. In the eastern Zhou Dynasty, iron works were often found in and around the capitals of states, qin and Han dynasties and counties.The coin foundry industry, which is related to the lifeblood of the national economy, is more concentrated inside and outside the capital or in the counties and cities.Therefore, urban handicraft archaeology plays an irreplaceable role in the study of high-tech industry and high-end handicraft industry at that time.Ancient handicraft industry in the city, he said, is not only wide portfolio, and more importantly the new and high technology industries and high-end manufacturing agglomeration, in a sense, the city was the representative of the development level of handicraft industry and handicraft industry “miniature”, the industry remains excavation and research, is undoubtedly one of the highlights of archaeological handicraft industry.Industry archaeology is part of archaeology, the city is also one of the key that archaeological handicraft industry, it is the study of the ancient city of handicraft industry, industrial structure and its change, industry layout, and its associated with urban layout structure and change the nature of the production mode of operation research is handicraft production and ownership issues, these are the industry, the main points of the archaeological”Supply chain” and “industrial chain” are two important perspectives in urban handicraft archaeology.Baiyun Xiang concluded that urban handicraft archaeology, as a cross research field of urban archaeology and handicraft archaeology, is the need of both deepening urban archaeology and promoting handicraft archaeology.City in China has made rapid progress of archaeology, handicraft archaeological beginning today, industry was proposed and constantly promoting of archaeology, whether in theory or in practice, has positive significance, in Chinese characteristics, Chinese style and Chinese style will play an important role in the construction of the archaeological and make due contributions.Disclaimer: This article is reproduced for the purpose of passing on more information.If the source is wrong or violated your legitimate rights and interests, please contact the author with proof of ownership, we will promptly correct, delete, thank you.Email address: firstname.lastname@example.org